Many consumers come across ingredients and products that contain jargon they're not familiar with. That's why we've conveniently put together this glossary for consumers should they care to better understand the terms associated with specific products.
Glossary of Terms
Acne – A skin condition that occurs when pores become clogged.
ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) – A chronic condition of attention difficulty and impulsivity.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) & Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) – High-energy molecules used by mitochondria containing three (ATP) or two (ADP) phosphate groups.
ADHD – Similar to ADD with the addition of hyperactivity.
Adipose Tissues – Scientific name for fatty tissues.
Alpha-Linoleic Acid – A type of omega-3 and essential fatty acid.
Amphetamine – Stimulant to the body and mind.
Anticoagulants – A compound that prevents activation of clotting factors.
Antioxidants – Term for compounds that neutralize free radicals.
Anxiety – A mental state of unrest, nervousness, or worry.
Apoptosis – Cell death by rupture.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia – Enlarged prostate gland.
Bioavailability – Describes what nutrients are available for use in the body.
Cardiovascular – Term for the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic system.
Cellular Balance – The state of equilibrium of a cell.
Cellular Matrix – Gives a cellular membrane a structure.
Cellular Membrane – Phospholipid bilayer of a cell, comparable to skin.
Ceramide-Dominance – The action of ceramides. Responsible for tissue structure.
Cirrhosis – Replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue.
Coq10 (Coenzyme Q10) – An antioxidant. See this page for more info.
Coronary Atherosclerotic Disease – Describes the deposition of plaque and fats in the walls of blood vessels.
Corticosteroids – Anti-inflammatory hormones.
Creatinine Phosphokinase – Enzyme of the heart, skeletal tissues, and brain tissue.
Depressants – Medications or compounds that induce depression.
Depression – Prolonged feelings of sadness, loneliness, or low mood.
Dermatitis – General inflammation of the skin.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) – Hereditary material of living organisms, codes for proteins.
Diabetes I – Metabolic condition where the pancreas stops producing insulin.
Diabetes II – Metabolic condition where the body stops responding to insulin.
Diffusion – Movement of compounds from an area of high to low concentration.
Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) – A precursor omega-3 to ALA that provides structure to the brain, spinal cord, and neural tissues.
Elasticity – Describes the stretchy nature of healthy skin.
Endothelium, Endothelial – The outer layer of the skin.
Essential Fatty Acids – Fatty acids that must be obtained from diet.
Estrogen/Testosterone – Female hormone.
Male Hormone Euphausia Superba – A type of krill found in the Antarctic, containing higher levels of Omega-3s and Astaxanthin.
Excretory System – Removes waste from the body and includes the pancreas, liver, intestines, and sweat glands.
Fat-Free, Low-Fat – Contains less than 0.5 grams per serving. Low-fat items contain less than 25 percent less fat than a typical serving.
Fat-Soluble – Describes a substance that dissolves in lipids (fats).
Free Radicals – Any unbound oxygen atom that may damage tissues.
Furrows – Long, trench-like impressions on the face, neck, and jawline.
Gestational – Refers to the development of a child in the uterus. May also describe a pregnancy-related condition.
Glial Cells – Responsible for better nerve functioning, cells that wrap around nerve cells in the body and brain.
Glucose – A complex sugar that the body uses for energy.
Homeostasis – A state of equilibrium for the body.
Hormonal Balance – Refers to the balance of hormones for a person’s age, gender, height, and weight.
Hydrophilic – Describes “water-loving” molecules or polar ends of molecules.
Hydrophobic – Describes “water-hating” molecules or polar ends of molecules.
Immunoglobulin – Antibodies.
Impotence – Condition in which a man cannot get or maintain an erection.
Inflammation – An immune response that results in heat, redness, pain, and swelling.
Insulin Levels – The typical quantity of insulin when fasting, ideally between 3 and 5 units.
Keratin – A fibrous structural protein of skin cells.
Kidney Function – Describes how well the kidneys remove wastes, excess water, and harmful substances from the blood.
Linum Usitatissimum – Scientific name for Flax.
Liver Spot – Large areas of changes in skin color, associated with age.
Low-Density Lipids/ High-Density Lipids – Unhealthy cholesterol. Healthy cholesterol.
Lymphatic System – Consists of lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels. Circulates fluids from tissues back to the cardiovascular system.
Melanin– Skin pigment that results in darker skin.
Melatonin – Sleep-inducing hormone.
Menopause – The natural halt to a woman’s menstrual cycle.
Metabolism – Describes all of the chemical actions within a body.
Mitochondria – Energy-producing organelle.
Molecule– Combination of atoms into a specific structure or compound.
Myelin Sheath – Describes when glial cells wrap around a nerve cell.
Nephron – Filtering cell of the kidney. Neurons – Brain cells.
Nonessential Fatty Acid – Fatty acid that can be synthesized by the body.
Nutrient – Any substance that nourishes the body.
Omega-3 – An essential fatty acid containing a double bond at the third carbon atom from the end of the chain.
Omega-6 – An essential fatty acid containing a double bond at third sixth carbon atom from the end of the chain.
Omega-9 – A nonessential fatty acid containing a double bond at the ninth carbon atom from the end of the chain.
Organelles – Organ-like components of a cell, responsible for specific cellular functions.
Osmosis – Diffusion of water across a cell membrane.
Ovum – Female reproductive cell.
Peristalsis – Involuntary muscular action that moves material through the intestinal tract.
Phospholipids – Compound made from fatty acids and a glycerol molecule. “Fat-like” molecule.
Prostate Specific Antigen – Protein produced by the cells of a man’s prostate gland.
Respiratory System – Denotes the “breathing” system of the body, e.g. the lungs, nose, and pharynx.
Rheumatoid Arthritis/ Osteoarthritis – Chronic inflammatory disorder that causes pain the joints.
Pain in the joints from the gradual “wearing down” of connective tissues.
Saturated– Describes the lack of double bonds in the end of fat molecules.
Seminal – Describes a relation to semen, e.g. seminal ducts transport semen from the parts of a male’s testes to the urethra.
Serotonin – A hormone in the brain that is responsible for positive joys and emotions.
Statins – Class of lipid-lowering medications. Stimulants – Result in increased metabolism.
Sustainability – Ability of a person, organism, or community to ensure one’s own survival. Applies to the life-favorable nature of living tissue.
Therapeutic – Refers to the healing qualities of a place, substance, person, or thing.
Unsaturated – Describes a fat that contains at least one double bond in the end of the molecule.
Utero – Describes the period of time when a fetus is developing in the uterus, similar to gestational.
UV Rays – Form of radiation in sunlight. Prolonged exposure may be harmful.
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